Tuesday, December 31, 2013



Vital Russ Rail
Link Cut,
Britain Hears

HELSINKI, Dec. 30 (AP)—Finland's warriors of the snows Saturday flung a third red Russian army back onto soviet soil —in full rout—and faced the new year exultant in the strength they have shown to the world.

British accounts of the operations at the start of the second month of northern war went so far as to credit Finnish "suicide patrols" of skiiers with cutting Russia's vital railway from Murmansk to Leningrad in three places. These dispatches said there were reports of a food shortage in Murmansk as a result of the raids on the railway, which is the main supply line for the invading Russians.

Other Finns Stand Fast
Other Finnish armies stood fast against attacks on the Mannerheim line while this little capital, in contrast to the bloody aerial blitzkrieg of a month ago, had not a single air raid alarm all day.
Soviet bombers, however, attacked, other towns both close to Helsinki and on the Karelian isthmus.

Half a' hundred bombs were dumped on Hanko, southwestern naval base, destroying a hospital and four other buildings and injuring ten patients. Vaasa, in the capital area, was bombed with three to five civilian deaths; Sipoo, 30 miles east of Helsinki, was raided and a little girl was killed; there were civilian casualties in raids on Kakisalmi and other isthmus towns.
Pushed Over Border
The third battle in which the attacking Russians were pushed back across the border took place near Kuhmo, about 50 miles north of Lieksa, in lower central Finland. The Finnish command charted the course of t h e Russian rout as southeast, past Kiekki.

Spread of War Marks
'39's Place in History

European Struggle Emphasizes
Economic Combat Rather
Than Bloody Land Battles

By The Associated Press

Three wars spread their terror around the world in 1939.

The old European enemies, Germany, France and Britain, were fighting again. The 1918 "peace" took up sword and gun as it came of age.

Out of Asia lumbered ponderous Russia, sharing defeated Poland with Germany and starting a separate war—another undeclared one—against Finland, who balked at giving naval bases, barracks and air fields to her big neighbor who wished to "protect" her against an unnamed potential foe Finland could not see.

Japan and China struggled on the other side of the world in a war of "scorched earth" guerilla tactics and international diplomacy.

The phrase, "All quiet on the western front," described the European land war, but on sea and in the air Britain and Germany fought out their hates.

Britain vowed "Hitlerism" must end. Germany declared she would smash Britain and her efforts to block the spread of German power over Europe.

By Robert E. Bunnelle

LONDON, Dec. 30—The European war so far is quite different from the conflict expected. Emphasis is placed on economic combat instead of on big bloody land battles as in the World war. The aim is to starve out the enemy, undermine his civilian

(Continued on Page Four, Column Two)

morale, isolate him in world politics and commerce, and keep his war plans upset by sharp irregular thrusts by sea and air. Casualty lists for war's first three months tell the story graphically.

More than 2000 men were lost in Britain's navy, more than 500 in the royal air force. But for this period the British expeditionary force reported only three men killed in action.

The war in brief stood like this:

1. Virtual stalemate on the western front.

2. The allies sought to establish a long-range naval blockade around Germany.

3. Germany sought to establish a counter-blockade against Britain through submarine and surface raiders and a new type of mine laid by airplanes.

4. Britain and Germany were feinting at each other's naval bases with persistent reconnaissance flights,



Monday, December 30, 2013

December 30, 1939; Russian Troops Poised For Major Drive:


"Green" Conscripts
Recalled From
Karelian Front


HELSINKI. Dec. 30 (AP)— The war's first major battle was imminent today, many military experts believed, as veteran Red troops, replaced callow conscripts under cover of a continuous artillery bombardment of Finland's Karelian isthmus defenses.
Cannon Rake Woods
With Soviet Russian cannon raking the woods in front of the Mannerhieim line, Finnish officers said experienced soldiers were relieving in some sections the youngsters whom the Finns have beaten back since the since the war started November 30.

Belief that Russia was preparing for a general drive was bolstered by reports that Gen. K. A. Meretskoff had been removed as commander of  the campaign against Finland.



Hitler Predicts Bitter Warfare
And Ultimate Victory in 1940

Declares Germany Armed to Maximum and
Will Force England to Her Knees;
Cites Smashing Coups of 1939

BERLIN, Dec. 30 (INS)-Predictions of bitter warfare in 1940, culminating in a German victory, were contained today in New Year proclamations

To the German defense' services and Nazi party by Chancellor Hitler and his highest aides. •
Reich Victories
Stressing that 1939 brought, smashing victories 'for the Reich Hitler declared the nation is facing the 1940 struggle united within, economically prepared and "militarily armed to a maximum degree for the most decisive year in German history."

In addition to Hitler, Feild Marshal William Hermann Goering, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder and Gen. Walther von Brauchitsch. commander-ln-chief of the German army, issued proclamations.

Expressing his confidence in the result of the war, the Fuehrer stated: "May the year 1940 tiring n decision. Whatever comes, victory will be ours."

Outlining Germany's war aims, he continued: "Germany and Europe must be free once and for all from coercion and permanent threats emanating from 'England." This time we must definitely knock the weapons out of the hands of war mongers and war makers...

"Green" Conscripts
Recalled From
Karelian Front

HELSINKI. Dec. 30 (AP)— The war's first major battle was imminent today, many military experts believed, as veteran Red troops, replaced callow conscripts under cover of a continuous artillery bombardment of Finland's Karelian isthmus defenses.
Cannon Rake Woods
With Soviet Russian cannon raking the woods in front of the Mannerhieim line, Finnish officers said experienced soldiers were relieving in some sections the youngsters whom the Finns have beaten back since the since the war started November 30.
Belief that Russia was preparing for a general drive was bolstered by reports that Gen. K. A. Meretskoff had been removed as commander of  the campaign against Finland.


Sunday, December 29, 2013


HELSINKI, Dec. 29. (U. P.)— Finnish troops killed 600 Russians in the battle of Kelja, which raged from 8 p. m. Tuesday night to noon Wednesday, an official communique announced tonight
HELSINKI, Finland, Dec. 29. — Russia threw an army estimated at 100,000 men at the western end of the Finnish Mannerheim Line today in a new attempt to break through and crush resistance.
Appearance of big squadrons of Russian planes over the front put the Finns on the alert for a possible Russian attempt to land suicide squads by parachute to blow up vital bridges and cut communications.
For three weeks the Russians had driven vainly at the eastern, end of the Mannerheim Line, on Lake Ladoga, to turn the Finnish left wing. Today, after a long bombardment of points all along the60-mile Karelian isthmus front, the Russians struck at the Finns' right wing. It seemed possible that this fight would develop into a crucial one. Shock troops were supported by reserves, estimated in all in excess of 100,000. The reserves were astride the main Leningrad-Viipur! road.
Everything pointed to a surge by massed Russian troops, the spearhead directed toward Viipuri.
Use Finn Railroad
The Russians had succeeded in repairing the Leningrad-Viipuri railroad, which the Finns tore up when they voluntarily retired to the Mannerheim defense line during the first few days of the war. Now the Russians were using it to concentrate their troops.
(United Press Leased Wire)
LONDON, Dec. 29.-.Naval circles confirmed today that a German submarine had attacked a British battleship of the Queen Elizabet class, killing three persons and causing "some damage." The vessel, however, is "safe and proceeding on her course," it was said.
In Berlin the German high command in a communique said that a German U-boat had torpedoed a British battleship of the Queen Elizabeth class off the west coast of Scotland. ... .
"A torpedo attack has been made on a British battleship by a U-boat. Some damage was caused," the admiralty announced.
"Three men were killed. The next of kin of the casualties will be informed as soon as possible."
Earlier the admiralty and other British naval circles had said that they had no knowledge regarding the German submarine attack. After issuing its brief communique later the admiralty said that it 'represented the only information on the attack available for the present.
Truce Urged
Peace AppealSent Finnsby Russ
(Associated Press Leased Wire)
LONDON, Dec. 29. — Peace proposals to the Finnish people were reported by London listeners to have been broadcast today by a Russian
station over the wave length of the Finnish Lahti station which temporarily went out of action during an air raid.
The announcer said Russians wanted to end the hostilities as much as the Finns and that if a truce were reached the Karelian area would be returned to Finland, all Finnish workers would be given holidays with pay and large estates would be liquidated.
(In the negotiations which preceded the war Moscow offered to cede Karelian territory in return for Finnish concessions.
Finnish circles in London said the proposals were ridiculous, that Finns already had holidays and that the most of the land was owned by peasants.

Saturday, December 28, 2013



Soviet Army's
Link to Food
Base Periled

COPENHAGEN, Dec. 28.-(UP)—
Dispatches to Scandinavian newspapers today reported that Finnish soldiers had thrust into Russian territory and damaged the important Russian railroad running from Leningrad to Murmansk.

The dispatches said that the Finnish thrusts to the railroad had been confirmed but failed to state at what points the road—vital artery of Russian supplies to the Northern fighting fronts—had been damaged.
The correspondent of the Stockholm Aftonbladet reported from Helsinki that it had been confirmed that the damage done to the road was hampering seriously the delivery of Russian food supplies to the central and northern fronts.
There were reports in Helsinki, the correspondent said, of widespread hunger among Russians in the North as a result of interruption
of supplies and civilians were described as suffering the greatest hardships.

New Shocks, Blizzard Add to Horrors; Homeless Freez0
To Death in Sub-zero Weather; Fires Trap Many; 12
Cities Scores of Villages Raized; President Aids in Relief

ANKARA, Turkey, Dec. 28— (A.P.)—Officials announced today 42,000" persons  were killed or injured in the region of Erzincan alone in yesterday's Anatolian earthquake. New tremors shook Anatolia today, while a blizzard and fierce winds increased the suffering of hundreds of thousands of homeless. A heavy storm raged along the Black Sea coast, tearing ships loose from moorings and battering down seaside homes.

With the temperature 22 degrees below zero (Fahrenheit), many thousands of earthquake survivors who had led to fields were frozen to

death, according to sparse reports reaching Ankara officials. Erzincan is a village, or province, in the extreme east of Turkey, on the Armenian border.
(The Statesmen's Year Book gave Srzincan's 1935 population as 157,344. The city of Erzincan had a population of about 40,000.)
Erzincan is about 350 miles east of Ankara and about 200 miles east of Sivas and Samsun, in the area  which earlier reports had indicated was hardest hit.



LONDON, Dec. 28.—(A.P.)—An Exchange Telegraph (British News Agency) dispatch from Helsinki today said it was reported without confirmation that 2000 Italian volunteers had arrived at Tornio to fight for Finland against Soviet Russia. Tornio is a Finnish port at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia.

OSLO, Dec. 28.—(A.P.)- A "Nordic division" composed of Scandinavian volunteers is being formed for the Finnish Army, the Norwegian

Telegram Bureau said today. Many Norwegians are offering their services for this unit, and are to be sent shortly to Finland via Sweden. Only experienced Winter sportsmen and ski experts are accepted. Their skis, clothing and weapons are being supplied by private subscriptions.

Foreign Minister Dr. Halvdan Kohl said that Norway under no circumstances could give military aid to Finland.

Norway's attitude, as- he outlined it. was one of readiness to lend moral or material help' but no soldiers.

Norwegian money contributions to Finland have reached a total of 8,000,000 kroner (about 51,816,000), and still are pouring in. They are being turned over to Finnish authorities Gifts in goods also have reached a large total, including 50,000 knapsacks.

ROME, Dec. 28.—(AP)—Dispatches from Peshawar said today that Afghanistan apparently was mobilizing her armed forces at the Soviet Russian border. The reports were denied by Afghanistan officials.

The daily advices said that Iranian troops were  concentrating on the Russian border between Kezuit and Tabriz, and that at least 20,000 soldiers were massed between Hamadan and Kermanshah, near the southern tip of the Caspian Sea.


Nations of Three Continents Rush
Troops, Cash, Arms To Finland

COPENHAGEN, Dec. 28. — (U.P)— Nations of three continents are organizing for aid for finance, reports showed today.  

Volunteers from the Scandinavian countries, particularly Sweden; war materials from the Allied countries, money from the United States and other Nations are on the way to help the Finns in their' fight against Russia.

Two detachments of volunteers passed through Stockholm last night and were joined by a contingent of Stockholm, including Prof. Hans Chattingius of the University of Upsala and the Rev. Harald Aekerhieln, a Stockholm pastor.- Two Swedish contingents had left Stockholm for Finland yesterday. Another left Malmoe for Stockholm.

Two officers of the Danish Air Force Reserve left for Finland without authority and, according to reports, may be court martialed. They were reported to be members of a Danish Olympic glider team..

Norway started a drive for 50,000 knapsacks for the Finnish Army. Most of 10,000 already donated were filled by their donors with warm clothing and tobacco.

Laplanders of Northern Finland "gave the Army 7000 prime reindeer skins and promised 15,000 pairs of  skis as well -as clothing to be made by Lapp women.




Friday, December 27, 2013




Finns Say Soviet Losses on
Lakes Mounting; Sweden
Aids With Volunteers

Helsinki Dec.27. (AP)-The

Russian air force struck repeatedly annd -vigorously today .at Tampere, vital Finnish munitions city. and other cities in' a series  of bombing raids.

Twelve bombers appeared over Tampere and dropped only a few bombs, but returned two hours later to shower at least 100 bombs on the city.

Official reports said the result was the destruction of come dwellings.-one dead  and -one injured."

The important seaport of Turku (Abo) on the southwest-coast  was  bombed, first by two . planes and then by a squadron 'of 15. Most, of the 50 bombs dropped there fell into the water. Harmlessly.


Helsinki was visited by a lone enemy plane, but apparently .no bombs were dropped.

Viipuri, Hameanlina and other cities also sighted Russian bombers during the new wave of raids.

Hitler Will Be Forced to Look Elsewhere for Help
If Finns Continue Successful Resistance of Reds



Thursday, December 26, 2013

December 26, 1939: WAR DOES NOT TAKE A HILIDAY



Serious Defeat' of
Finns Claimed

Reds Say 35 of Foe
Captured as Force
Is Surrounded and
Position Occupied

Moscow, Dec. 25.—APTh. Leningrad military headquarters reported tonight that Russian reconnoitering units had routed two battalion, of Finns near Jolomantri and occupied enemy positions at Suomusalmi after a "serious" Finnish defeat.

The communique declared that the action at Jolomantri the Russians had completely surrounded the Finns, who left many wounded on the battlefield as they retired. Thirty-five Finns were reported captured.

Suomusalmi, where the Russians said they had overrun the enemy's fortified positions," is in middle Inland, about 20 miles Inside the Finnish frontier.

Skirmishes, which the communique said developed Into "serious encounters," were reported at several other points on the front.

The successes, reported in the communique were the first officially attributed to the Russian land forces in several days.

Advance Said
75 Miles From
Red Railroad

Defenders Report of.
Russian Battleship
Shelled; Minor
Victories Announced

Helsinki, Dec. 35. — AP — The Christmas Day communique of the Finnish command reported Finnish white-clad troops fighting on Russian soil and reaching the vital Murmansk Railway.

Bombs from Russian warplanes fell on more than half dozen Finnish cities, artillery shells exploded in one city near the front, fighting in progress at several places.

War did not take a holiday.

"East of Llokja, military operations ar. taking place .on the other side of the frontier," said the Finnish communique covering the activities. of Dec. 24. It was the first official confirmation that the war had reached into Russian soil. The statement also announced Finnish batteries shelled the 26, ton Russian battleship Marat.

The Finns described minor successes on several fronts while reports from Viipuri and Tampar indicated six Russian warplanes had been shot down in Christmas day raids.

Military sources said the Finnish troops in the Lieksa sector had driven across the frontier and were within 75 miles of the Murmansky railway, over which red army troops in the northern sector must receive their supplies.


Russian Planes Raid Finnish City Repeatedly
Then Long Range Guns Begin Bombardment

Viipuri, Finland, Dec, 26.—AP—
The shelling of this ancient city by distant Russian cannon became more Intense late tonight after Russian aircraft had delivered Christmas Day bombing of workers' section.

Two shells began dropping simultaneously at half hour intervals.  One shell shook thw Kurt Posse Hotel. Soon after, another explosion started a fire in the southeast section of the city.

Authorities cleared the restaurants and dispersed other gatherings.

The only casualties from the earlier aerial bombardment were two women injured and a girl who were injured. As the raiders turned away and darkness fell, long range Russian artillery took up the attack for the second successive night but they, to, caused little damage.

The Christmas Day bombing of Viipuri, whose famous castle built in 1793 was the center of the spread of Christianity. In the Karelian area, kept most Finns huddled in cold, bombproof shelters.


King Says People
Will Sacrifice
All for Freedom
British Ruler Sends
Christmas Message to
Empire and Forces

Sandringham, England, Dec. 25
King George VI declared in a Christmas war broadcast today that his people were "prepared to sacrifice everything in order that freedom of the spirit may be saved to the world."

His address went to all parts of the empire of 500 million people and to Britain’s fighting forces "which Included a message from a royal air force pilot flying at 6000 feet somewhere over England and from a destroyer leaving a harbor to go on patrol duty.

"We can not tell what the New Year at hand will bring—If It brings the peace for which all men want, how thankful we all shall be, thanking all.
"But if It brings a a renewed struggle it shall find us, undaunted."

Wednesday, December 25, 2013



Pontiff Acknowledges F.D.R.
Appointment of Personal
Envoy to Vatican.

VATICAN CTTY, Dec.'25.—(AP)—Pope Plus led Catholicism in prayer today, having offered a basis for peace in a Christmas- address in which he assailed the inhumanity of war.
The pope celebrated mass at mid' night in the intimacy of his private chapel and again said mass on arising early for a quiet Christmas which he arranged to spend within his apartments, listening to a program of Christmas music broadcast by the Vatican radio station.
In informally acknowledging President Roosevelt's appointment of Myron C. Taylor as the president's personal representative to the Vatican the pope described-the move as "A powerful contribution for achievement of a just and durable peace and alleviation of the sufferings of war."
Pope Pius sold he had expressed his "heartfelt gratitude" to the  president for the "Christmas message which could not have been more welcome to us."

The pope's program for a "Just and honorable peace," which he proposed in an address to 25 cardinals yesterday, contained five points, he expressed belief that when the "occasion presents itself all "sane statesmen" would consider them.

The points:
1. Guarantee every nation, large or small, the right' to life and in dependence.
2. Free the world from "the slavery of armaments."
3. Make effective international organizations created to solve the world's problems peacefully.
4. Fulfill "the needs and just demands of nations, peoples and ethnical minorities."
5. Provide observance by statesmen and peoples of Christian principles.



Capital and Seaport City
Inhabitants Take
to Shelters
HELSINKI, Dec. 25.—(AP) Howling air raid sirens drowned the Christmas bells in Finland's capital today and the sound of distant detonations' indicated the suburbs were hit by raiders. One alarm after another drove Helsinki's residents to cover over a period of nearly five hours, but apparently no bombs fell inside the city. The raids on the capital area followed attacks on Viborg, second largest Finnish city, in which casualties still had not; been determined late this afternoon.
Flying over the seaport city east of here, at least six bombs were dropped shortly after midnight, but no serious damage was reported immediately. It was the second bombing In the area within 24 hours.
Coming at 10 to 15-minute intervals, the blasts at first were believed to have been from enemy artillery fire. Some of the bombs fell in the heart of the city.
The Finnish communique reported yesterday 14 Soviet planes were shot down. The enemy dead thus far, the Finns said, "cannot be known exactly, but It must soar to an. Extremely high figure."
The Russians reported the Finnish army left 971 men dead on the field in clashes yesterday on the Karelian Isthmus front, and that 35 soldiers and four Finnish, officers were taken prisoner.
Successful drives against the enemy were reported by the Finns from the southern isthmus front.
Reconnoitering attacks were carried out against the enemy along the isthmus, and Soviet forces were hurled back, the communique said.
On the Aglajarvi front, about 35 miles from the Russian border north of Lake Ladoga, the Finns said they had reached Alttojokl.

In the "waistline" section between Suomussalmi and Raappe, the Finns . reported Russian losses as "two tanks and a transport column of 100 horses and the capture by us of automobiles and- two anti-tank guns.
Further north, the Finns were reported following up the Red armyforces "approaching" Salla, about 35 miles from the Russian frontier.,
"Entire enemy companies, battalions and regiments have been cut up and scattered/' an official war summary said.

War at a Clance
International News Service.
Helsinki and Viborg greeted with salvo of Russian bombs as Europe at war greets Christmas with hopes of ultimate settlement of war-creating conditions. Finns push invaders back toward Russian border.
Pope Pius XII voices prayer for peace, offers program for settlement of European conflicts.
President' Roosevelt's peace gesture in appointing "peace envoy" to Vatican hailed by religious and political leaders.
Western front inactive; British planes in flight over Helgoland; Germany told only victory can bring peace.
King George VI addresses nation in Christmas message, declares war is only means to assure that" peace for which Christmas stands.


Tuesday, December 24, 2013



Washington, Dec. 23 (AP)—The 21 American republics, acting in unity, protested to England. France and Germany today against naval engagements within the American “neutrality zone”, and advised them that consultations were being carried on looking toward penalizing future violations.

Among the steps under consideration, the note said, was adoption of a rule which would prevent belligerent vessels from supplying themselves and repairing damages in American ports “when the said vessels have committed warlike acts within the zone of neutrality.
All 21 Sign
The protest was sent to the three belligerents by the president of Panama, Dr. Don Augusto S. Boyd. It was signed by all the 21 republics signatory to the declaration of Panama which set forth the “inherent rights” of the American republics to establish the zone for their own protection.
The protest was based on the naval battle between the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee and three British cruisers off the Uruguayan coast, the “suicide” of the German warship in the River Plate, and the seizure or sinking of 'German merchant ships by British warship in American waters.



By The Associated Press
Europe’s lot is another wartime Christmas, but one way or another, it will be celebrated according to the tradition of each belligerent.
There was no official truce for the men at the front as they went about their Christmas preparations. Advance guards kept up their sentry duty.

French and British troops got ready for such feasting and gayety as their duties would permit, across no-man’s-land the Germans brightened their bunkers with evergreen and tuned up for Christmas caroling.
No Yule for Reds The Finns, fighting in a snow- covered, blue-clad country where every vista was worthy of a Christmas card, had little prospect of any Christmas observance at all. The Russian invaders don’t observe Christmas.



Helsinki, Dec. 23 (AP)—A savage battle at Aglajarvi on the south-eastern front In which a surrounded Russian force was practically destroyed before it surrendered was reported tonight In the Finnish high command communique.
While Finnish troops were reporting a series of successful offensive operations along the eastern and southeastern fronts. Russian air raiders, for the fifth consecutive day, bombed strategic Finnish cities. Finnish advices, however, said there were no casualties.
More Guns Seized
The Aglajarvi region is now wholly in our hands and our advance continues,” the communique said, adding that more than 600 prisoners were captured in the fighting at Aglajarvi and nearby Tolvajarvl.

These towns are in the frontier zone about 60 miles north of Lake Ladoga . The Finns said they also seied six cannon, eight tanks, eight anti-
tank guns, a number of machine guns and other equipment in the AglajarvI operations.



Strategic areas in the Finnish war. (1) Finns
reported pursuing Russians as far as Hoyhenjarvi.
(2) Russians retreating from Salmijarvi.
(3) Reds reported to have left Petsamo



Monday, December 23, 2013



Chased Back
In Arctic

Heavy Fighting Reported
At Salmijarvi
And Karelian

By Associated Press
HELSINKI, Dec. 22.—The Russian military machinewas thrown into an accelerated reverse tonight on two Finnish fronts and fought to a full stop on a third.

In' the rigid Arctic Petsamo sector the Finns, said officially that they had chased the invaders back into the nickel mining region and that fierce fighting was in progress ' around Salmijarvi, which the Russians- had taken more than a week ago.:

The Soviet Union retreat to the north was described as approaching a "catastrophe" in the Norwegian border reports.

Soviet, Admits
Offers Alibi

Most Serious^ Difficulties
Met, Moscow

By Associated Press
MOSCOW, Dec. 23.— Soviet Russia admitted "most serious difficulties" had been encountered in Finland's natural and artificial fortifications today but denied that the Finnish invasion was not progressing according to schedule.

Declaring that the Mannerheim line on the Karelian Isthmus was equal to Germany's Siegfried line, a Red army communique said its commanders had been cognizant' of the difficulties before the campaign started, and that only "ignorance or overt hostility" toward the Red army could lead foreign observers to expect annihilation of the Finns "by one lightning blow."
No New Gains
For the third successive day, the communique failed to report any important new gains, lending credence, among foreign observers, to Finnish reports of important reverses to the Soviet Union military machine.