Saturday, August 17, 2013

August 17, 1945; JAPANESE EMPIRE SMASHED (Synopsis)


(See below for synopsis if the Pacific war.)


Gen. MacArthur
Informed Plans
For Aerial Trip
Complete; Other
Emissaries Of
Emperor Start
Visiting Fronts

London, Aug. 17—(AP)—Japanese troops on some sectors of the Manchurian front began surrendering today and the Red army took 20.000 prisoners, the Soviet communique announced.

Manila, Saturday, Aug. 18—(AP)—General MacArthur announced at 2:45 a. m. today that the Japanese government had notified him that Its surrender emissaries had been selected and would leave by' plane tomorrow for Manila.

This word came from the defeated enemy after two days of quibbling on the part of Tokyo and after MacArthur had curtly told Japan to comply with his directives "without further delay."

Text of the Japanese message follows:
"From Japanese GHQ to Supreme Allied commander , radiogram, 7-A-17.

 Our representative to Manila selected. Due to necessary internal procedure he is scheduled to leave Tokyo on August 19. Further details will follow."

The Allied Supreme commander did not set a deadline for the departure of the Japanese envoys but 1 indicated definitely he would tolerate no extended delay without good reason.


3,000 American Fliers Lost

In Operation of Superforts

Spaatz Reveals

600 Others Were

Rescued by Navy

Guam, Aug. 17—(AP)—General Spaatz disclosed today that the yearlong operations of B29's against Japan cost the lives of over 3,000 American fliers, while more than 600 others were recued by naval operations. Combat operations resulted in the loss of 437 of the Superfortresses.

Noncombat losses were not announced, but they are known to be considerable, particularly in the early months of the campaign when the crews were learning the capabilities of their planes.
Crews lost, averaging 11 men each, numbered 297.

On the other side of the ledger, the commander of the U. S. Army Strategic air forces said, the giant aircraft destroyed the major industrial productive capacity of 59 cities.

Japanese cities and partially destroyed six others. Six cities more than 75 percent destroyed were Numazu, Fukui, Hitachi, Takamatsu, Kuwana and Himeji.

(page) 6     THE KOKOMO TRIBUNE *  August 17, 1345.


For four months after the Japanese struck at Pearl Harbor, there was little but a bewildering succession of Japanese successes. Then on April 18, 1942 Doolittle's "Shangri-La" bombers raided Tokyo, Yokohama and Nagoya.

The news Invigorated America like a cold shower. From then on, although this country was still terribly outgunned and hamstrung by lack of enough trained men, the story slowly began to get better.

May 4-8, In the battle of the Coral Sea, the U. S. Navy sank or damaged eight big Japanese ships, losing the carrier Lexington. June 3-6 the Navy routed a powerful enemy force in the battle of Midway. Four enemy carriers, two heavy cruisers, three destroyers and a transport were sunk.

Aug. 7 American Marines landed on Guadalcanal and Tulagi, beginning the first major offensive of the Japanese war. Tulagi was secured almost immediately, but not until Feb. 9, 1943, was Guadalcanal completely occupied. The Army had taken over by that time from the Marines, who went on to other jobs.

The Japanese defeat on Guadalcanal was due in a large measure of a naval battle Nov. 13-15 in which 16 of their warships and four transports were sunk.

The American comeback in the far northern Pacific sector began Aug. 30, 1942, when U. S. forces landed on Adak in the Aleutian islands.

The cleanup in the Aleutians was completed a year later when U, S. and Canadian forces landed on Kiska to find the enemy had already fled the island.

After Guadalcanal came a. long series of bloody Island engagements. Gen. MacArthur announced that it was not his policy to hop islands all the way to Tokyo, but even so it was necessary to occupy a great many along the way to secure the route.

June 30 Americans and Australians landed on New Georgia and Rendova islands. Nov. 1 the Marines invaded Bougainville, Nov. 21 the Tanks landed on Makin and Kwajalein Feb. 20; Eniwetok, Feb.29.

Meanwhile MacArthur's forces were creeping up the east coast of New Guinea and westward along the north coast. The Japs had been turned back from Port Moresby Sept. 25. -1942. Yanks and Australians took Salamaua nearly a year later, on Sept. 11, 1943,and Lae on Sept. 16. This campaign wound its tortuous way through the water's edge jungles, leap-frogging sometimes from one port town to another, until Hollandia was occupied April 28, 1944.

With Adm. Nimitz' naval forces blasting the Japanese fleet on sight, the island campaigns and the New Guinea campaign kept pace with one another, guarding each other's flanks, until the time came for the           climax of the southwest Pacific drive—the reoccupation of the Philippines.

MacArthur's men went ashore on Leyte Oct. 20, 1944, splitting the Philippines in two by Christmas. From then on, the Yanks moved north and south. They landed on Lingayen Gulf, on the island of

Luzon, Jan .9. The Luzon fighting went fairly rapidly, with Manila liberated late in February, 1945, but it was not until June 28 that MacArthur could say that the last Japanese on the island had been cleaned up. July 5 he said all the Philippines were liberated.

Oct. 23-26 Japan's navy suffered one of its most crushing defeats under the guns and planes of our. fleet. It lost 24 ships, Including two' battleships and four carriers. The U. S. Navy lost six.

Meantime the 20th Air Force's B-29S, now Based on recaptured Guam and Saipan, were taking a crack now and then at a tiny speck of land up close to Japan. It was called Iwo Jima in what they later labeled as the most bloody engagement in their history. The island was secured Match 17 and went into service as an emergency station for- B-29S.

Next point in the ring slowly choking Japan was Okinawa, which was subdued June 21 and put into use as a bomber base. Meanwhile Australians, with U. S. Navy and air help, were invading Borneo. They completed recapture of the Miri oil fields June 24.

The Japanese had been driven out of Burma, too, and the Chinese had cut their Manchuria-Indo-China lifeline at Yunghing. The Burma-Ledo road had been opened, with a pipeline alongside a good part of its length,

This was the situation when the U. S., Britain and China demanded at Potsdam that Japan surrender. Japan refused. One week later th first atomic bomb fell on Japan. This was followed by an '"atomic bombshell"—Russia's declaration of war—and obviously the end was near.





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